An international group of scientists developed a new method for exploring fundamental particles that exploits an analogy between the behavior of quarks in high-energy physics and that of electrons in condensed-matter physics.
The interaction between proton and neutrons, the fundamental unit of quarks, is very strong that these units could not be directly detected. The existing methods for exploring the properties of quarks require extremely expensive particle colliders and collaborations between thousands of researchers.
The new method will help the scientist community to devise and conduct experiments to gain conclusive evidence for quark storage, asymptotic freedom, and others. It can also be used against superinsulators can exist in both two and three dimensions.
Vinokur, from the Univerity of Perugia in Italy, said: â€œThis is not our everyday experience. When you pull magnets apart, it becomes easier as they're separated, but the opposite is true of quarks. They resist fiercely. The distorted electric field in a superinsulator creates a string that binds the couples of Cooper pairs, and the more you stretch them, the more the couple resists to separation.â€
The team, Vinokur, and Carlo trugenberger from SwissScientific Technologies, formulated a theory about superinsulator, where the electrons have same properties as quarks. Electrically charged particles do not behave as quarks, as quarks cannot be pulled out of each other.
The new work developed by Vinokur and co-researchers Diamantini, Trugenberger, and Luca Gammaitoni at the University of Perugia demonstrates that 3-D superinsulators display a critical behavior known as Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT). This is mainly in the presence of transitioning to a superinsulating state. Superinsulators in 2-D, however, display a different behavior: the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.
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